“Since the world began and men have killed one another no one has ever committed such a crime against his fellow man without comforting himself with this same idea. This idea is le bien public, the hypothetical welfare of other people.”
To secure his own escape from Moscow with the French about to invade, Tolstoy writes that the Governor of Moscow, Count Rostopchin, encouraged a mob that had gathered to attack and kill a prisoner that he turned over to them. With the mob focused on the convict, Rostopchin left the city in a carriage that had been awaiting him in the back of the house.
What he has done, bothers the Count in this story. The count then comforts himself with the idea that it was necessary for the good of the public. As representative of the Tsar, he felt it was his duty to safeguard his own life. It was his duty to his country, for the public good, to do as he had done. He could not admit to himself that it was simply to save his own skin. He had to have a more noble reason, le bien public.
I love how Tolstoy continues to expose the contradiction between what is thought reprehensible on a personal level, but becomes noble or good when done in the name of the collective.